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1280s

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
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The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

Events

1280

1281

By place

Byzantine Empire
  • Spring – Siege of Berat: A Byzantine relief force under Michael Tarchaneiotes arrives at the strategically important citadel of Berat. Tarchaneiotes avoids a confrontation with the Angevines and relies on ambushes and raids instead. He manages to capture the Angevin commander, Hugh of Sully, a few of Sully's guards escape and reach their camp – where they report his capture. Panic spreads among the Angevin troops at this news and they begin to flee towards Avlon. The Byzantines take advantage of their disordered flight and attacked, joined by the troops in the besieged citadel. Tarchaneiotes takes an enormous booty, a small remnant of the Angevin army manages to cross the Vjosa River and reach the safety of Kanina.[10]
  • October 18 – Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) is excommunicated by Pope Martin IV without any warning or provocation. Michael has re-established his rule in Constantinople, and authorizes Charles I, king of Sicily, to make a Crusade against the Papal States. Charles prepares an expedition in Sicily and assembles a fleet of 100 ships, and 300 more in Naples, Provence, and the Greek territories, which carry some 8,000 cavalrymen.[11]
Europe
Middle East
  • September – Two Mongol armies (some 50,000 men) advance into Syria. One, is commanded by Abaqa Khan – who attack the Mamluk fortresses along the Euphrates frontier. The second one, led by his brother Möngke Temür makes contact with Leo III, king of Cilician Armenia, and then marches down through Aintab and Aleppo into the Orontes valley. Where he is joined by knights of the Hospitaller Order and some French mercenaries. Meanwhile, Sultan Qalawun assembles his Mamluk forces at Damascus.[14]
  • October 29Battle of Homs: In a pitched battle, Mamluk forces (some 30,000 men) led by Qalawun destroy the Mongol center, Möngke Temür is wounded and flees. He orders a retreat, followed by a disorganized army. The Armenian-Georgian auxiliaries under Leo III fight their way back northwards. The Mongol army recrosses the Euphrates without losses, the river remains the frontier between the Mongols and the Mamluk Sultanate.[15]
  • Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, becomes bey of the Söğüt tribe in central Anatolia after the death of his father, Ertuğrul Ghazi. Osman's accession to power is not peaceful, as he has to fight his relatives before he gets hold of the clan's leadership. One of Osman's major rivals is his uncle Dündar Bey, who rebels against him.[16]
Asia

By topic

Markets
Religion

1282

By place

Europe
  • March 30War of the Sicilian Vespers: A group of Sicilian conspirators begins an uprising against the rule of King Charles I; over the next six weeks, thousands of French are killed. The rebellion forces Charles to abandon the Ninth Crusade, while still en route to the target city of Constantinople and allows King Peter III (the Great) to take over rule of the island from Charles (which in turn leads to Peter's excommunication by Pope Martin IV).
  • May 1Battle of Forlì: A French expeditionary army under Jean d'Eppe launches an assault on Forlì and breaches the outer wall. While they plunder the suburbs, Guido I da Montefeltro sends a small force out the gate on the opposite side of the city. In an ambush, Guelph and Ghibelline forces defeat the main army of d'Eppe, who is forced to retreat to Faenza. He requests Martin IV for more reinforcements, but this is refused.[19]
  • Summer – A Aragonese expeditionary army under Peter III lands in North Africa in Collo, in proclaimed support of a rebellion of the governor of Constantine, Ibn Wazir. The revolt is suppressed by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim I, ruler of the Hafsid Sultanate. Peter, wary of the situation in Sicily, sails off and fails to take advantage of the state of rebellion in North Africa. Ibrahim stabilizes his power and styles himself emir of the sultanate.[20]
  • June – The 24-year-old Prince Sancho, heir to the throne of Castile, assembles a coalition of nobles and starts a massive rebellion against his father, King Alfonso X (the Wise). He dispatched his brothers into the realm to claim strategically important cities and castles. Only the cities of Seville, Murcia, and Badajoz remain loyal to Alfonso, who becomes isolated politically and abandoned by most of his family.[21]
  • June 26 – King Denis I (the Poet King) marries the 11-year-old Elizabeth of Aragon, daughter of Peter III (the Great), in Trancoso. Elizabeth received the towns of Óbidos, Abrantes, and Porto de Mós as part of her dowry. Denis, known for his poetry, writes several poems and books himself, with topics of administration and hunting. During his reign, Lisbon becomes one of Europe's centers of art and culture.
  • July – Alfonso X (the Wise) allies himself with Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd al-Haqq, ruler of the Marinid Sultanate, who crosses the straits, and establishes a camp at Zahara de la Sierra, in southern Spain. Alfonso offers the Castilian royal crown of his father and grandfathers as a pledge of re-payment of a loan. Out of pity, Abu Yusuf gives him 100,000 gold dinars.[22]
  • August – Castilian forces under Sancho lay siege to Badajoz, who eventually retreat as the combined armies of Alfonso X (the Wise) relieve the city. Shortly after, Alfonso marches to Córdoba and demands the key of the city. This is refused by Diego López V de Haro, speaking on behalf of the magnates. Meanwhile, the Marinids plunder the Guadalquivir valley.
  • August 30 – Peter III (the Great) traveling with his fleet on a military expedition against Tunis, ends up in the Sicilian town of Trapani, after he was asked by the inhabitants of Palermo to help in the fight against Charles I.[23]
  • September 4 – Peter III (the Great) is proclaimed "King of Sicily". Charles is forced to flee across the Strait of Messina, only to be content with the Kingdom of Naples (ruling a part of the Italian Peninsula with Martin IV).[24]
  • September or October – Battle of Lake Hód: Hungarian forces led by King Ladislaus IV successfully repel and defeat an invading Cuman army. Ladislaus receives for his heroic victory the title "the Cuman".[25]
  • November – Castilian forces under Alfonso X (the Wise) reconquer Córdoba. Pope Martin IV issues a papal bull, forcing Sancho and his nobles to proclaim their allegiance to Alfonso. Ending the rebellion.
  • December 27 – King Rudolf I invests his sons, Albert I and Rudolf II, as co-rulers of the duchies of Austria and Styria, and lays the foundation of the House of Habsburg in these territories.[26]
  • Dutch forces led by Floris V, count of Holland, attack and defeat the West Frisians at the battle of Vronen. He succeeds in retrieving the body of his father, William II, some 26 years dead.
  • King Stefan Dragutin breaks his leg while hunting and becomes ill. He abdicates the throne in favor of his younger brother, Stefan Milutin, who becomes ruler of Serbia (until 1321).
  • Peter III (the Great) obtains the support of Nasrid Granada preparing for the incoming Aragonese Crusade, led by Philip the Fair of France.[27]
England

By topic

Education
Markets
  • The form for the Trial of the Pyx, during which it is confirmed that newly minted coins conform to required standards, is established.
  • The first evidence is discovered of the existence of consolidated public debt in Bruges, confirming the expansion of use of annuities, to fund government expenditure to the Low Countries.[30]
Nature
Technology
Religion

1283

By place

Asia
Europe
Africa

By topic

Art and Culture
Markets
  • The Saxon city of Goslar starts making efforts to redeem its already issued annuities, a sure indication of financial difficulty, and maybe an early sign of the 13th century crisis.[34]
Religion

1284

By area

Africa
  • Putting an end to the Bedouin rebellion that had toppled his brother in 1283, Abu Hafs Umar I reconquers Tunis, and reinstalls the Hafsids as the dominating dynasty in Ifriqiya.[36]
  • Peter III of Aragon takes advantage of the weakness of the Hafsid Dynasty, and raids the island of Jerba. The Aragonese massacre the population, and occupy the island.[36]
Asia
Europe

By topic

Arts and culture
Education
Health
Markets
  • The Republic of Venice begins coining the ducat, a gold coin that is to become the standard of European coinage, for the following 600 years.

1285

By area

Africa
Asia
Europe

By topic

Arts
Markets
  • The first record is made of an emission of life annuities, by the city of Lübeck. It is the first instance of issue of public debt in Germany, and it confirms a trend of consolidation of local public debt over north-western Europe (see 1228).[43]
  • The county of Champagne is integrated into the kingdom of France; the region loses its haven characteristics for foreign merchants, and the fairs of Troyes quickly dwindle into economic insignificance.[44]
Religion

1286

By area

Africa
Asia
Europe

By topic

Arts and culture

1287

By place

Africa
Asia
Europe

By topic

Arts and culture
  • The Altar of St. James in Pistoia Cathedral, Italy – a masterwork of the silversmithing trade containing nearly a ton of silver – is begun; it will not be completed for nearly 200 years.
Economics
  • The Italian city of Siena exacts a forced loan on its taxpayers for the first time, a common feature of medieval public finance.[53]
Religion

1288

By area

Asia
Europe

By topic

Arts and culture
Markets
Religion
Technology
  • The oldest known bronze handgun in the world is dated to this year, a Chinese gun found in Acheng District, that was once used to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol Prince Nayan in 1287–1288.

1289

By place

America
Africa
Asia
  • Prince Subaru of Japan conquers the province of Saitama.
Europe

By topic

Education
Markets
  • In Siena, twenty three partners, including five members of the Bonsignori family, re-create the Gran Tavola, formerly the most successful European bank, which had ceased its operations after the death of its creator and manager, Orlando Bonsignori, in 1273.[56]
=Religion=

Significant people

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)

Births

1280

1281

1282

1283

1284

1285

1286

1287

1288

1289

Deaths

1280

1281

1282

1283

1284

1285

1286

1287

1288

1289

References

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1280s
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