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Module:String

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Le module String (un mot anglais signifiant chaîne de caractères) permet de manipuler des chaînes de caractères.

Utilisation

Fonctions exportables :

  • len – renvoie le nombre de caractères dans une chaîne, prend en compte les caractères multi-octets (len ou length signifie taille, longueur)
  • sub – renvoie une partie de la chaîne de caractères (sub ou sub-string signifie sous-chaîne)

Autres fonctions :
À compléter…

Modules externes et autres éléments dont ce module a besoin pour fonctionner :
À compléter…


len

Cette fonction renvoie la longueur de la chaîne de caractère cible.

Fonctionnement
((#invoke:String|len|chaîne_de_caractère_cible))

OU

((#invoke:String|len|s=chaîne_de_caractère_cible))
Paramètres
  • s : la chaîne de caractère dont la longueur doit être signalée

S'il est appelé à l'aide de paramètres nommés, MediaWiki supprimera automatiquement tout espace blanc de début ou de fin de la chaîne de caractère cible.

sub

Cette fonction renvoie une sous-chaîne de caractère spécifiée par des indices numériques d'une chaîne cible.

Fonctionnement
((#invoke:String|sub|chaîne_de_caractère_cible|index_de_départ|index_de_fin))

OU

((#invoke:String|sub|s=chaîne_de_caractère_cible|i=index_de_départ|j=index_de_fin))
Paramètres
  • s : la chaîne de caractère de départ
  • i : le début de la sous-chaîne de caractère commence à l'entier indiqué par ce paramètre, par défaut à 1.
  • j : la fin de la sous-chaîne de caractère finit à l'entier indiqué par ce paramètre.

Le premier caractère de la chaîne se voit attribuer un index de 1. Si i ou j est une valeur négative, cela est interprété comme la sélection d'un caractère en comptant à rebours à partir de la fin de la chaîne de caractère cible. Par conséquent, une valeur de -1 revient à sélectionner le dernier caractère de la chaîne.

Si les indices demandés sont hors limites pour la chaîne donnée, une erreur est signalée. Si un paramètre d'index est omis, la chaîne de caractère cible est reprise à l'identique, au commencement ou à la fin suivant l'omission et le signe du paramètre restant.

match

This function returns a substring from the source string that matches a specified pattern.

Usage:

((#invoke:String|match|source_string|pattern_string|start_index|match_number|plain_flag|nomatch_output))

OR

((#invoke:String|match|s=source_string|pattern=pattern_string|start=start_index
    |match=match_number|plain=plain_flag|nomatch=nomatch_output))

Parameters

  • s: The string to search
  • pattern: The pattern or string to find within the string
  • start: The index within the source string to start the search. The first character of the string has index 1. Defaults to 1.
  • match: In some cases it may be possible to make multiple matches on a single string. This specifies which match to return, where the first match is match= 1. If a negative number is specified then a match is returned counting from the last match. Hence match = -1 is the same as requesting the last match. Defaults to 1.
  • plain: A flag indicating that the pattern should be understood as plain text. Defaults to false.
  • nomatch: If no match is found, output the "nomatch" value rather than an error.

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or trailing whitespace from each string. In some circumstances this is desirable, in other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

If the match_number or start_index are out of range for the string being queried, then this function generates an error. An error is also generated if no match is found. If one adds the parameter ignore_errors=true, then the error will be suppressed and an empty string will be returned on any failure.

For information on constructing Lua patterns, a form of [regular expression], see:

pos

This function returns a single character from the target string at position pos.

Usage:

((#invoke:String|pos|target_string|index_value))

OR

((#invoke:String|pos|target=target_string|pos=index_value))

Parameters

  • target: The string to search
  • pos: The index for the character to return

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or trailing whitespace from the target string. In some circumstances this is desirable, in other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

The first character has an index value of 1.

If one requests a negative value, this function will select a character by counting backwards from the end of the string. In other words pos = -1 is the same as asking for the last character.

A requested value of zero, or a value greater than the length of the string returns an error.

find

This function allows one to search for a target string or pattern within another string.

Usage:

((#invoke:String|find|source_str|target_string|start_index|plain_flag))

OR

((#invoke:String|find|source=source_str|target=target_str|start=start_index|plain=plain_flag))

Parameters

  • source: The string to search
  • target: The string or pattern to find within source
  • start: The index within the source string to start the search, defaults to 1
  • plain: Boolean flag indicating that target should be understood as plain text and not as a Lua style regular expression, defaults to true

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or trailing whitespace from the parameter. In some circumstances this is desirable, in other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

This function returns the first index >= "start" where "target" can be found within "source". Indices are 1-based. If "target" is not found, then this function returns 0. If either "source" or "target" are missing / empty, this function also returns 0.

This function should be safe for UTF-8 strings.


replace

This function allows one to replace a target string or pattern within another string.

Usage:

((#invoke:String|replace|source_str|pattern_string|replace_string|replacement_count|plain_flag))

OR

((#invoke:String|replace|source=source_string|pattern=pattern_string|replace=replace_string|
   count=replacement_count|plain=plain_flag))

Parameters

  • source: The string to search
  • pattern: The string or pattern to find within source
  • replace: The replacement text
  • count: The number of occurences to replace, defaults to all.
  • plain: Boolean flag indicating that pattern should be understood as plain text and not as a Lua style regular expression, defaults to true


rep

Cette fonction répète la même chaîne de multiple fois.

Utilisation :

((#invoke:String|rep|texte|nombre))

Paramètres :

  • texte : le texte à répeter
  • nombre : le nombre de répétition

count

Cette fonction compte le nombre de fois qu'un motif apparaît dans la chaîne de caractère.

Utilisation :

((#invoke:String|count|texte|motif|plain_flag))

Paramètres :

  • texte : la chaîne de caracère
  • motif: le motif (ou pattern) a rechercher
  • plain_flag: Indicateur booléen indiquant que le modèle doit être compris comme du texte brut et non comme une expression régulière de style Lua compatible Unicode; la valeur par défaut est true

Exemples

len

((#invoke:String|len|ABCDEFGHIJ))
renvoie 10
((#invoke:String|len|É)) 
renvoie 1, même si É occupe 2 octets
((#invoke:String|len| ))  
renvoie 1 , les espaces blancs sont pris en compte

sub

((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|0))        renvoie une erreur, ici l'index commence à 1 (contrairement à d'autres langages de programmation)
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|5))        renvoie EFGHIJ, on commence à partir du 5ème caractère et on prend le reste
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|1|3))      renvoie ABC, on commence à partir du 1er jusqu'au 3ème
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|1|1))      renvoie A
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|-1))       renvoie J, l'index est inversé on commence à la fin
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|-5|-2))    renvoie FGHI
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|-5|2))     renvoie une erreur, l'index de fin doit être après l'index de début (2 est placé avant -5) 
((#invoke:String|sub|ABCDEFGHIJ|-5|7))     renvoie FGHI, l'index de fin est bien après l'index de début

count

Exemples:

  • ###{#invoke:String|count|aabbcc|a))### : ###2### --nombre de a
  • ###{#invoke:String|count|aabbcc|z))### : ###0### --nombre de z
  • ###{#invoke:String|count|aabbcc|[ac]|plain=false))### : ###4### --nombre de a ou de c
  • ###{#invoke:String|count|11-aa-2587|[0-9]|plain=false))### : ###6### --nombre de chiffres
  • ###{#invoke:String|count|Il était une fois| |plain=true))### : ###3### --nombre de blancs
  • ###{#invoke:String|count|Il était une fois|[ ]|plain=false))### : ###3### --nombre de blancs

Voir aussi


Voir les statistiques d'utilisation du module sur l'outil wstat.

--[[

This module is intended to provide access to basic string functions.

Most of the functions provided here can be invoked with named parameters,
unnamed parameters, or a mixture.  If named parameters are used, Mediawiki will
automatically remove any leading or trailing whitespace from the parameter.
Depending on the intended use, it may be advantageous to either preserve or
remove such whitespace.

Global options
	ignore_errors: If set to 'true' or 1, any error condition will result in
		an empty string being returned rather than an error message.
		
	error_category: If an error occurs, specifies the name of a category to
		include with the error message.  The default category is
		[Category:Errors reported by Module String].
		
	no_category: If set to 'true' or 1, no category will be added if an error
		is generated.
		
Unit tests for this module are available at Module:String/tests.
]]

local str = {}

--[[
len

This function returns the length of the target string.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|len|target_string|))
OR
((#invoke:String|len|s=target_string))

Parameters
	s: The string whose length to report

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or
trailing whitespace from the target string.
]]
function str.len( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, {'s'} )
	local s = new_args['s'] or ''
	return mw.ustring.len( s )
end

--[[
sub

This function returns a substring of the target string at specified indices.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|sub|target_string|start_index|end_index))
OR
((#invoke:String|sub|s=target_string|i=start_index|j=end_index))

Parameters
	s: The string to return a subset of
	i: The fist index of the substring to return, defaults to 1.
	j: The last index of the string to return, defaults to the last character.
	
The first character of the string is assigned an index of 1.  If either i or j
is a negative value, it is interpreted the same as selecting a character by
counting from the end of the string.  Hence, a value of -1 is the same as
selecting the last character of the string.

If the requested indices are out of range for the given string, an error is
reported.
]]
function str.sub( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, { 's', 'i', 'j' } )
	local s = new_args['s'] or ''
	local i = tonumber( new_args['i'] ) or 1
	local j = tonumber( new_args['j'] ) or -1
	
	local len = mw.ustring.len( s )

	-- Convert negatives for range checking
	if i < 0 then
		i = len + i + 1
	end
	if j < 0 then
		j = len + j + 1
	end
	
	if i > len or j > len or i < 1 or j < 1 then
		return str._error( 'String subset index out of range' )
	end
	if j < i then
		return str._error( 'String subset indices out of order' )
	end
	
	return mw.ustring.sub( s, i, j )
end

--[[
This function implements that features of ((str sub old)) and is kept in order
to maintain these older templates.
]]
function str.sublength( frame )
	local i = tonumber( frame.args.i ) or 0
	local len = tonumber( frame.args.len )
	return mw.ustring.sub( frame.args.s, i + 1, len and ( i + len ) )
end

--[[
match

This function returns a substring from the source string that matches a
specified pattern.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|match|source_string|pattern_string|start_index|match_number|plain_flag|nomatch_output))
OR
((#invoke:String|pos|s=source_string|pattern=pattern_string|start=start_index
	|match=match_number|plain=plain_flag|nomatch=nomatch_output))

Parameters
	s: The string to search
	pattern: The pattern or string to find within the string
	start: The index within the source string to start the search.  The first
		character of the string has index 1.  Defaults to 1.
	match: In some cases it may be possible to make multiple matches on a single
		string.  This specifies which match to return, where the first match is
		match= 1.  If a negative number is specified then a match is returned
		counting from the last match.  Hence match = -1 is the same as requesting
		the last match.  Defaults to 1.
	plain: A flag indicating that the pattern should be understood as plain
		text.  Defaults to false.
	nomatch: If no match is found, output the "nomatch" value rather than an error.

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or
trailing whitespace from each string.  In some circumstances this is desirable, in
other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

If the match_number or start_index are out of range for the string being queried, then
this function generates an error.  An error is also generated if no match is found.
If one adds the parameter ignore_errors=true, then the error will be suppressed and
an empty string will be returned on any failure.

For information on constructing Lua patterns, a form of [regular expression], see:

* http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/manual.html#5.4.1
* http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Scribunto/Lua_reference_manual#Patterns
* http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Scribunto/Lua_reference_manual#Ustring_patterns

]]
function str.match( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, {'s', 'pattern', 'start', 'match', 'plain', 'nomatch'} )
	local s = new_args['s'] or ''
	local start = tonumber( new_args['start'] ) or 1
	local plain_flag = str._getBoolean( new_args['plain'] or false )
	local pattern = new_args['pattern'] or ''
	local match_index = math.floor( tonumber(new_args['match']) or 1 )
	local nomatch = new_args['nomatch']
	
	if s == '' then
		-- return str._error( 'Target string is empty' )
	end
	if pattern == '' then
		return str._error( 'Pattern string is empty' )
	end
	if math.abs(start) < 1 or math.abs(start) > mw.ustring.len( s ) then
		-- return str._error( 'Requested start is out of range' )
	end
	if match_index == 0 then
		return str._error( 'Match index is out of range' )
	end
	if plain_flag then
		pattern = str._escapePattern( pattern )
	end
	
	local result
	if match_index == 1 then
		-- Find first match is simple case
		result = mw.ustring.match( s, pattern, start )
	else
		if start > 1 then
			s = mw.ustring.sub( s, start )
		end
		
		local iterator = mw.ustring.gmatch(s, pattern)
		if match_index > 0 then
			-- Forward search
			for w in iterator do
				match_index = match_index - 1
				if match_index == 0 then
					result = w
					break
				end
			end
		else
			-- Reverse search
			local result_table = {}
			local count = 1
			for w in iterator do
				result_table[count] = w
				count = count + 1
			end
			
			result = result_table[ count + match_index ]
		end
	end
	
	if result == nil then
		if nomatch == nil then
			return str._error( 'Match not found' )
		else
			return nomatch
		end
	else
		return result
	end
end

--[[
pos

This function returns a single character from the target string at position pos.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|pos|target_string|index_value))
OR
((#invoke:String|pos|target=target_string|pos=index_value))

Parameters
	target: The string to search
	pos: The index for the character to return

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or
trailing whitespace from the target string.  In some circumstances this is desirable, in
other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

The first character has an index value of 1.

If one requests a negative value, this function will select a character by counting backwards
from the end of the string.  In other words pos = -1 is the same as asking for the last character.

A requested value of zero, or a value greater than the length of the string returns an error.
]]
function str.pos( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, {'target', 'pos'} )
	local target_str = new_args['target'] or ''
	local pos = tonumber( new_args['pos'] ) or 0

	if pos == 0 or math.abs(pos) > mw.ustring.len( target_str ) then
		return str._error( 'String index out of range' )
	end
	
	return mw.ustring.sub( target_str, pos, pos )
end

--[[
find

This function allows one to search for a target string or pattern within another
string.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|find|source_str|target_string|start_index|plain_flag))
OR
((#invoke:String|find|source=source_str|target=target_str|start=start_index|plain=plain_flag))

Parameters
	source: The string to search
	target: The string or pattern to find within source
	start: The index within the source string to start the search, defaults to 1
	plain: Boolean flag indicating that target should be understood as plain
		text and not as a Lua style regular expression, defaults to true

If invoked using named parameters, Mediawiki will automatically remove any leading or
trailing whitespace from the parameter.  In some circumstances this is desirable, in
other cases one may want to preserve the whitespace.

This function returns the first index >= "start" where "target" can be found
within "source".  Indices are 1-based.  If "target" is not found, then this
function returns 0.  If either "source" or "target" are missing / empty, this
function also returns 0.

This function should be safe for UTF-8 strings.
]]
function str.find( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, {'source', 'target', 'start', 'plain' } )
	local source_str = new_args['source'] or ''
	local pattern = new_args['target'] or ''
	local start_pos = tonumber(new_args['start']) or 1
	local plain = new_args['plain'] or true
		
	if source_str == '' or pattern == '' then
		return 0
	end
	
	plain = str._getBoolean( plain )

	local start = mw.ustring.find( source_str, pattern, start_pos, plain )
	if start == nil then
		start = 0
	end
	
	return start
end

--[[
replace

This function allows one to replace a target string or pattern within another
string.

Usage:
((#invoke:String|replace|source_str|pattern_string|replace_string|replacement_count|plain_flag))
OR
((#invoke:String|replace|source=source_string|pattern=pattern_string|replace=replace_string|
   count=replacement_count|plain=plain_flag))

Parameters
	source: The string to search
	pattern: The string or pattern to find within source
	replace: The replacement text
	count: The number of occurences to replace, defaults to all.
	plain: Boolean flag indicating that pattern should be understood as plain
		text and not as a Lua style regular expression, defaults to true
]]
function str.replace( frame )
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, {'source', 'pattern', 'replace', 'count', 'plain' } )
	local source_str = new_args['source'] or ''
	local pattern = new_args['pattern'] or ''
	local replace = new_args['replace'] or ''
	local count = tonumber( new_args['count'] )
	local plain = new_args['plain'] or true
	
	if source_str == '' or pattern == '' then
		return source_str
	end
	plain = str._getBoolean( plain )

	if plain then
		pattern = str._escapePattern( pattern )
		replace = mw.ustring.gsub( replace, "%%", "%%%%" ); --Only need to escape replacement sequences.
	end
	
	local result

	if count ~= nil then
		result = mw.ustring.gsub( source_str, pattern, replace, count )
	else
		result = mw.ustring.gsub( source_str, pattern, replace )
	end

	return result
end

--[[
rep

Cette fonction retourne la concaténation de son premier paramètre n fois où n est le deuxième paramètre (fonction "rep" ou "repeat")

Usage :
((#invoke:String|rep|string|int))

Paramètres :
	la chaîne 'string' dont on veut répeter
	l'entier 'int' le nombre d'itération
]]
function str.rep(frame)
	local new_args = str._getParameters( frame.args, { 's', 'n' } )
	local s = new_args['s'] or ''
	local n = tonumber( new_args['n'] ) or 1
	if not s or s == '' then
		return ''
	end
	if not n or n <0 then
		return s
	end
	return mw.ustring.rep(s,n)
end

--[[
count
This function counts the number of occurrences of one string in another.
]]
function str.count(frame)
	local args = str._getParameters(frame.args, {'source', 'pattern', 'plain'})
	local source = args.source or ''
	local pattern = args.pattern or ''
	local plain = str._getBoolean(args.plain or true)
	if plain then
		pattern = str._escapePattern(pattern)
	end
	local _, count = mw.ustring.gsub(source, pattern, '')
	return count
end


--[[
Helper function that populates the argument list given that user may need to use a mix of
named and unnamed parameters.  This is relevant because named parameters are not
identical to unnamed parameters due to string trimming, and when dealing with strings
we sometimes want to either preserve or remove that whitespace depending on the application.
]]
function str._getParameters( frame_args, arg_list )
	local new_args = {}
	local index = 1
	
	for i = 1, #arg_list do
		local arg = arg_list[i]
		local value = frame_args[arg]
		if value == nil then
			value = frame_args[index]
			index = index + 1
		end
		new_args[arg] = value
	end
	
	return new_args
end

--[[
Helper function to handle error messages.
]]
function str._error( error_str )
	local frame = mw.getCurrentFrame()
	local error_category = frame.args.error_category or 'Errors reported by Module String'
	local ignore_errors = frame.args.ignore_errors or false
	local no_category = frame.args.no_category or false
	
	if str._getBoolean(ignore_errors) then
		return ''
	end
	
	local error_str = '<strong class="error">String Module Error: ' .. error_str .. '</strong>'
	if error_category ~= '' and not str._getBoolean( no_category ) then
		error_str = '[[Category:' .. error_category .. ']]' .. error_str
	end
	
	return error_str
end

--[[
Helper Function to interpret boolean strings
]]
function str._getBoolean( boolean_str )
	local boolean_value
	
	if type( boolean_str ) == 'string' then
		boolean_str = boolean_str:lower()
		if boolean_str == 'false' or boolean_str == 'no' or boolean_str == '0'
				or boolean_str == '' then
			boolean_value = false
		else
			boolean_value = true
		end
	elseif type( boolean_str ) == 'boolean' then
		boolean_value = boolean_str
	else
		error( 'No boolean value found' )
	end
	return boolean_value
end

--[[
Helper function that escapes all pattern characters so that they will be treated
as plain text.
]]
function str._escapePattern( pattern_str )
	return mw.ustring.gsub( pattern_str, "([%(%)%.%%%+%-%*%?%[%^%$%]])", "%%%1" )
end

return str
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