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A faire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ortler_Alps http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piz_Nair

Les principaux cols de montagnes de Massif de l'Ortles sont :

ColLocalisationtypealtitude (m)
HochjochSulden to the Zebrù valleysnow3536
Vioz Pass Santa Caterina Valfurva to Peio snow 3337
Königsjoch Sulden to Santa Caterina snow 3295
Cevedale Pass Santa Caterina to Martell snow 3271
Eissee Pass Sulden to Martell snow 3133
Passo del Zebru Santa Caterina to the Zebrù valley snow3025
Sallentjoch Martell to Bagni di Rabbi snow 3021
Sforzellina Pass Santa Caterina to Peio snow 3005
Tabarettascharte Sulden to Trafoi foot path 2883
Stelvio Pass/Stilfserjoch Trafoi to Bormio road2760
Gavia Pass Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno road2637

Hongrie (fr)

Avec une superficie de 93 030 km², la Hongrie est un pays d'Europe centrale. Elle mesure environ 250 km du nord au sud et 524 d'est en ouest. Elle a 2 258 km de frontières avec l'Autriche à l'ouest, la Serbie, la Croatie et la Slovénie au sud et sud-ouest, la Roumanie au sud-est, l'Ukraine au nord-est et la Slovaquie au nord.

Les frontières actuelles de la Hongrie ont été tracées après la Première Guerre mondiale quand, après le Traité du Trianon de 1920, la Hongrie perdit 71% de ce qui fut autrefois le Royaume de Hongrie, 58,5% de ses habitants et 32% des Hongrois. Avec l'aide de l'Allemagne nazie, le pays obtint quelques territoires supplémentaires aux dépends de la Slovaquie en 1938, de la région Carpates-Ukraine en 1939, de la Roumanie en 1940 et de la Yougoslavie en 1941. Elle perdit ces territoires après la Seconde Guerre mondiale où les frontières du Traité du Trianon furent rétablies, avec un petit changement géographique au bénéfice de la Tchécoslovaquie

Topographie

L'altitude de la plus grande partie du pays n'excède pas les 200 mètres. Même si la Hongrie a quelques chaînes de montagnes sur son territoire, celles qui atteignent 300 mètres ou plus de haut ne représentent que 2% de sa superficie. Le point culminant du pays est le Kékes (1 ,014 mètres) dans les Monts Mátra au nord-est de Budapest. Le point le plus bas se trouve à 77,6 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer, près de Szeged dans le sud du pays.

Les principaux cours d'eau du pays sont le Danube et la Tisza. Le Danube coule aussi en Allemagne, Autriche, Slovaquie, Serbie et Roumanie. En Hongrie, il est navigable sur 418 kilomètres. La Tisza est navigable en Hongrie sur 444 kilomètres. Parmi les cours de moindre importance, il y a la Drava, le long de la frontière avec la Croatie, la Raab, le Someş, le Sió et l'Ipel le long de la frontière avec la Slovaquie. La Hongrie a trois lacs majeurs : le plus grand, le Lac Balaton mesure 78 km de long et de 3 à 14 km de large pour une surface totale de 592 km², c'est le plus important lac d'eau douce d'Europe centrale. Les Hongrois l'appellent souvent la mer hongroise. Ses côtes peu profondes offrent en été des espaces de baignade et en hiver sa surface gelée permet de patiner dessus. On trouve également d'autres lacs plus petits comme le Lac Velence dans le département de Fejér et le lac Fertő (Lac de Neusiedl) dont la partie hongroise fait 82 km².

La Hongrie est découpée en trois régions géographiques principales (elles-même divisées en sept régions), le Grand Alföld ) l'est du Danube, le Transdanubia, une région de collines à l'ouest du Danube jusqu'au pied de la partie autrichienne des Alpes et les collines du nord, au-delà du nord de la grande plaine hongroise.

Les principales ressources naturelles de la Hongrie viennent de son sol fertile, sol dont la qualité varie beaucoup suivant les régions. Le pays est constitué de 70% de terres agricoles, 72% desquelles sont des terres arables. Cependant la Hongrie manque de sources d'énergie et de matières premières nécessaires à son développement industriel.

Cours d'eau et lacs

Cours d'eau

La plupart des sources des cours d'eau hongrois ne sont pas situés sur son territoire. Les plus importants, le Danube et la Tisza sont navigables dans tout le pays et ont plusieurs affluents. On trouve également bon nombre de source thermales.


 
Nom Longueur en Hongrie
Danube 417 km
Tisza 596 km
Leitha 180 km
Rábca
Raab 211 km
Zala 139 km
Dráva 725 km
Ipel 143 km
Zagyva 160 km
Sajó 125 km
Hernád 118 km
Bodrog 118 km
Someş
Körös
Mureş 48 km
Lacs

La Hongrie a plusieurs ensembles de lacs dont le plus grand lac d'Europe centrale, le Lac Balaton qui est une destination réputée pour les touristes ainsi que le plus grand lac thermal du monde (47 500 m²). Le lac de Tapolca (en hongrois : Barlangtó) est réputé car c'est un lac souterrain. Les principaux lacs sont les suivants :

 
Nom Surperficie en Hongrie
Lac Balaton 596 km²
Lac Tisza (artificiel) 127 km²
Lac Fertő 75 km²
Lac Velence 26 km²

Plaines et collines

Articles principaux : Petit Alföld, Transdanubia, Grand Alföld.

Le Petit Alföld ou Petite plaine de Hongrie est une plaine (bassin tectonique) extrêmement fertile d'environ 8 000 km² au nord-ouest de la Hongrie, sud-ouest de la Slovaquie et à l'est de l'Autriche, le long de la Raab.

La région transdanubienne se situe à l'ouest du pays et est délimitée par le Danube, la Drava ainsi qu'une partie des frontières avec la Slovénie et la Croatie. Positionnée au sud et à l'ouest du lit du Danube, cette région composée principalement de collines, comprend les lacs Fertő et Balaton. Transdanubia est une région principalement agricole avec de la culture céréalière, du bétail ainsi que de la vigne. Des dépôts de minerais et de pétrole existent dans la région de Zala, près de la frontière croate.

Le Grand Alföld comprend le bassin de la Tisza et ses affluents et s'étend sur plus de la moitié du pays. Entouré de montagnes, il possède une grande variété de terrains : sols fertiles, sablonneux, stériles ou marécageux. L'habitat des Hongrois dans cette zone remonte au moins à l'an 1 000. On retrouve le puszta (sorte de steppe) très lié au folklore hongrois et toujours très présent à Hortobágy. Au début, la Grande Plaine n'était pas faite pour l'agriculture en raison de fréquentes inondations. À la place, on trouvait d'immenses élevages de bétail et de chevaux. Dans la deuxième moitié du dix-neuvième siècle, le gouvenement a subventionné un vase programme de contrôle des berges et de drainage. Avec la disparition du danger de fréquentes inondations, la plupart du pays s'est tourné vers la culture, l'élevage ne représentant plus une contribution majeure à l'économie du pays.


Montagnes

Articles principaux: Alpokalja, Moyennes montagnes transdanubiennes, Mecsek, Moyennes montagnes septentrionales.

Bien que l'altitude de la plupart du pays n'excède pas 300 mètres, on trouve plusieurs chaînes de montagnes moyenne en Hongrie. Il existe quatre régions géographiques montagneuses, d'ouest en est : Alpokalja, Moyennes montagnes transdanubiennes, Mecsek, Moyennes montagnes septentrionales. Alpokalja (littéralement les contreforts des Alpes) est situé le long de la frontière avec l'Autriche. Son point culminant est le mont Írott-kő (882m). Les moyennes montagnes transdanubiennes s'étendent du Lac Balaton jusqu'au Danube près de Budapest, où elles rencontrent les moyennes montagnes septentrionales (ou collines septentrionales), et culminent à 757 m (Pilis). Mecsek est la chaîne montagneuse la plus méridionale située au nord de Pécs. Son point culminant est le Zengő (682 m). Les moyennes montagnes septentrionales sont au nord de Budapest et se déploient vers le nord-est en direction du sud de la frontière avec la Slovaquie. Ses hautes crêtes très boisées sont riches en minerai de charbon et de fer. L'extraction de minerai est une ressource importante de la région et furent d'ailleurs la base de l'industrie des cités avoisinantes. La viticulture est aussi importante avec la culture du fameux Tokay. Son point culminant est le Kékes, situé dans la chaîne des monts Monts Mátra.


Points culminants

Rang Nom Altitude Chaîne de montagnes Région géographique
1. Kékes 1014 m Monts Mátra Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
2. Galyatető 964 m Monts Mátra Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
3. Istállós-kő 959 m Bükk Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
4. Bálvány 956 m Bükk Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
5. Tar-kő 950 m Bükk Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
6. Csóványos 938 m Börzsöny Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
7. Nagy-Milic 894 m Zemplén Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
8. Írott-kő 882 m Monts Kőszeg Alpokalja
9. Nagyhideghegy 864 m Börzsöny Moyennes montagnes septentrionales
10. Tót-hegyes 814 m Mátra Moyennes montagnes septentrionales


Notes

Hungary (en) [1]

With a land area of 93,030 square kilometers, Hungary is a country in Central Europe. It measures about 250 kilometers from north to south and 524 kilometers from east to west. It has 2,258 kilometers of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, the Ukraine to the northeast, and Slovakia to the north.

Hungary's modern borders were first established after World War I when, by the terms of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, it lost more than 71% of what had formerly been the Kingdom of Hungary, 58.5% of its population, and 32% of the Hungarians. With the aid of Nazi Germany, the country secured some boundary revisions at the expense of parts of Slovakia in 1938, Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939, Romania in 1940 and Yugoslavia in 1941. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II. After World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia.

Topography

Topographic map of Hungary
Topographic map of Hungary

Most of the country has an elevation of fewer than 200 meters. Although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 meters or more cover less than 2% of the country. The highest point in the country is Kékes (1,014 meters) in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest. The lowest spot is 77.6 meters above sea level, located in the south of Hungary, near Szeged.

The major rivers in the country are the Danube and Tisza. The Danube also flows through parts of Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia, and Romania.It is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 kilometers in the country. Less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, and the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Hungary has three major lakes. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 kilometers long and from 3 to 14 kilometers wide, with an area of 592 square kilometers. Hungarians often refer to it as the Hungarian Sea. It is Central Europe's largest freshwater lake and an important recreation area. Its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, and in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence (26 square kilometers) in Fejér County and Lake Fertő (Neusiedler See--about 82 square kilometers within Hungary).

Hungary has three major geographic regions (which are subdivided to seven smaller ones): the Great Alföld, lying east of the Danube River; the Transdanubia, a hilly region lying west of the Danube and extending to the Austrian foothills of the Alps; and the Northern Hills, which is a mountainous and hilly country beyond the northern boundary of the Great Hungarian Plain.

The country's best natural resource is fertile land, although soil quality varies greatly. About 70% of the country's total territory is suitable for agriculture; of this portion, 72% is arable land. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of the energy and raw materials needed for industrial development.

Rivers and lakes

Rivers

The springs of the mayor Hungarian rivers are outside the country. The two most important rivers, the Danube and the Tisza are navigable on their whole Hungarian length. They have several tributaries.

The county is rich in brooks and hot springs.

 
Name Length in Hungary
Danube 417 km
Tisza 596 km
Lajta 180 km
Rábca
Rába 211 km
Zala 139 km
Dráva 725 km
Ipoly 143 km
Zagyva 160 km
Sajó 125 km
Hernád 118 km
Bodrog 118 km
Szamos
Körös River
Maros 48 km
Lakes

Hungary has several bodies of water, including the greatest lake of Central Europe, Lake Balaton, which is a famous tourist destination. Lake Hévíz, the largest thermal lake in the world (47,500 square metres in area) is located in Hungary as well. The Lake Cave (Hungarian: Barlangtó) of Tapolca is also notable as being a sub-surface lake. Major lakes include:

 
Name Surface in Hungary
Balaton 596 km²
Tisza (artificial) 127 km²
Fertő 75 km²
Velence 26 km²

Plains and hills

Main articles: Little Hungarian Plain, Transdanubia, Great Alföld.
Hortobágy on the Great Hungarian Plain with Racka sheep
Hortobágy on the Great Hungarian Plain with Racka sheep

The Little Alföld or Little Hungarian Plain is a plain (tectonic basin) of approximately 8,000 km² in northwestern Hungary, southwestern Slovakia and eastern Austria, along the lower course of the Rába River, with high quality fertile soils.

The Transdanubia region lies in the western part of the country, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River, and the remainder of the country's border with Slovenia and Croatia. It lies south and west of the course of the Danube. It contains Lake Fertő and Lake Balaton. The region consists mostly of rolling hills. Transdanubia is primarily an agricultural area, with flourishing crops, livestock, and viticulture. Mineral deposits and oil are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia.

The Great Alföld contains the basin of the Tisza River and its branches. It encompasses more than half of the country's territory. Bordered by mountains on all sides, it has a variety of terrains, including regions of fertile soil, sandy areas, wastelands, and swampy areas. Hungarians have inhabited the Great Plain for at least a millennium. Here is found the puszta, a long, and uncultivated expanse (the most famous such area still in existence is the Hortobágy), with which much Hungarian folklore is associated. In earlier centuries, the Great Plain was unsuitable for farming because of frequent flooding. Instead, it was the home of massive herds of cattle and horses. In the last half of the nineteenth century, the government sponsored programs to control the riverways and expedite inland drainage in the Great Plain. With the danger of recurrent flooding largely eliminated, much of the land was placed under cultivation, and herding ceased to be a major contributor to the area's economy.

Transdanubia
Transdanubia

Mountains

Main articles: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Medium Mountains, Mecsek, Northern Medium Mountains.

Although the majority of the country has an elevation lesser than 300 metres, Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains. They can be classified to four geographic regions, from west to east: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Medium Mountains, Mecsek and Northern Medium Mountains. Alpokalja (literally the foothills of the Alps) is located along the Austrian border; its highest point is Írott-kő with an elevation of 882 metres. The Transdanubian Medium Mountains stretch from the west part of Lake Balaton to the Danube Bend near Budapest, where it meets the Northern Medium Mountains (or Northern Hills). Its tallest peak is the 757 m high Pilis. Mecsek is the southernmost Hungarian mountain range, located north from Pécs - Its highest point is the Zengő with 682 metres.

The Northern Medium Mountains lie north of Budapest and run in a northeasterly direction south of the border with Slovakia. The higher ridges, which are mostly forested, have rich coal and iron deposits. Minerals are a major resource of the area and have long been the basis of the industrial economies of cities in the region. Viticulture is also important, producing the famous Tokaji wine. The highest peak of it is the Kékes, located in the Mátra mountain range.

Highest peaks

# Name Height Mountain range Geographic region
1., Kékes 1014 m Mátra Northern Medium Mountains
2., Galyatető 964 m Mátra


Northern Medium Mountains
3., Istállós-kő 959 m Bükk Northern Medium mountains
4., Bálvány 956 m Bükk Northern Medium mountains
5., Tar-kő 950 m Bükk Northern Medium mountains
6., Csóványos 938 m Börzsöny Northern Medium mountains
7., Nagy-Milic 894 m Zemplén Northern Medium mountains
8., Írott-kő 882 m Kőszeg Mountains Alpokalja
9., Nagyhideghegy 864 m Börzsöny Northern Medium Mountains
10., Tót-hegyes 814 m Mátra Northern Medium Mountains

Climate

Hungary has a continental climate, with cold winters and warm to hot summers. The average annual temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F), in summer 27 to 35 °C (81 to 95 °F), and in winter 0 to −15 °C (32 to 5 °F), with extremes ranging from about 42 °C (110 °F) in summer to −29 °C (−20 °F) in winter. Average yearly rainfall is about 600 millimetres (24 inch]]). Distribution and frequency of rainfall are unpredictable. The western part of the country usually receives more rain than the eastern part, where severe droughts may occur in summertime. Weather conditions in the Great Plain can be especially harsh, with hot summers, cold winters, and scant rainfall.

By the 1980s, the countryside was beginning to show the effects of pollution, both from herbicides used in agriculture and from industrial pollutants. Most noticeable was the gradual contamination of the country's bodies of water, endangering fish and wildlife. Although concern was mounting over these disturbing threats to the environment, no major steps had yet been taken to arrest them.

Extreme points

Hungary's westernmost settlement is Felsőszölnök in Vas county, the easternmost is Garbolc in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, the northernmost is Hollóháza in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county and the southernmost is Kásád in Baranya county.

The country's highest point is Mount Kékes (1014 m) while the lowest is River Tisza near Szeged (78 m).

Agriculture

Wheat field, Hungary
Wheat field, Hungary

Hungary, with its plains and hilly regions, is highly suitable for agriculture.

Arable land

Doubtless, one of Hungary's most important natural resources is arable land. It covers about 49.58% of the country, which is outstanding in the world (see the related map). The mass majority of the fertile soil has a good quality.

The most important agricultural zones are the Little Hungarian Plain (it has the highest quality fertile soil in average), Transdanubia, and the Great Hungarian Plain. The last covers more than half of the county (52,000 km² in number), whereas soil quality varies extremely; the territory even contains a small, grassy semi-desert, the so-called puszta (steppe in English). Puszta is exploited by sheep and cattle raising.

The most important Hungarian agricultural products include corn, wheat, barley, oat, sunflower, poppy, potato, millet, sugar-beet, flax, and many other plants. There are also some newly naturalized plants, too, for example, amaranth. Poppy consumption is part of the traditional Hungarian cuisine.

A greengrocer's in Hungary
A greengrocer's in Hungary

The country is well-known for producing high quality green pepper, called paprika. There are numerous fruits reared, including many subspecies of apple, pear, peach, grape, apricot, water melon , cantaloupe, etc.

Hungary does not grow any GMO products, thus these products are mainly imported from the United States. They cannot, however, be distributed without a mark on the wrapping.

Viticulture

Wine production has a long history in Hungary. There are two languages in Europe in which the word for "wine" does not derive from the Latin, being Greek – and Hungarian. The Hungarian word is bor.

Viticulture has been recorded in the territory of today's Hungary already in the Roman times, who were responsible for the introduction of the cultivation of wines. The arriving Hungarians took over the practice and maintained it ever since.

Today, there are numerous wine regions in Hungary, producing quality and inexpensive wines as well, comparable to Western European ones. The majority of the country's wine regions are located in the mountains or in the hills, such as Transdanubian Medium Mountains, Northern Medium Mountains, Villány Mountains, and so on. Important ones include the regions of Eger, Hajós, Somló, Sopron, Villány, Szekszárd, and Tokaj-Hegyalja.

Forestry

19% of the country is covered by forests. These are mainly mountainous areas, such as the Northern and the Transdanubian Medium Mountains, and the Alpokalja. The composition of forests is various, with trees like fir, beech, oak, willow, acacia, plane, etc.

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Utilisateur:Erdrokan/brouillon
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