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Anaeroob betekent 'zonder lucht plaatsvindend of kunnen leven', waarbij met "lucht" zuurstof bedoeld wordt. Anaerobe organismen gebruiken geen zuurstof om energie op te wekken en kunnen zelfs worden gedood door zuurstof. Anaerobe organismen gebruiken gisting of anaerobe dissimilatie. De tegenhanger is aeroob.

Corrosie onder anaerobe omstandigheden van ijzer door Desulfovibriobacteriën
Corrosie onder anaerobe omstandigheden van ijzer door Desulfovibriobacteriën

Er zijn verschillende graden:

Gewone gist is facultatief anaeroob. Veel rottingsbacteriën zijn anaeroob. Sommige anaerobe organismen zijn erg nuttig, bijvoorbeeld de boterzuurbacterie.

Anaerobe archaea worden gebruikt in actief slib rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties. Met water zetten archaea opgeloste organische stoffen om in koolstofdioxide en methaan (biogas).

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